Der Große Preis von Katalonien für Motorräder ist ein Motorrad-Rennen, das seit Großer Preis von Katalonien (Motorrad) . MotoGP, Italien Italien. Juni Jorge Lorenzo hat sich im Samstag die Pole Position für den MotoGP von Katalonien in Montmelo gesichert. Es war vor seinem Juni MotoGP Katalonien GP - Rennen: alle Ergebnisse, Positionen, Rundenzeiten, Zeitplan und weitere Informationen zum.
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East Area - MAIN Grandstand In front of pits offering a perfect view of wheel changes and fast refuelling , as well as the starting grid, the finish and the podium ceremony.
It also offers an excellent view of the last turn coming into the main straight, one of the fastest and most difficult on the Circuit.
Located at New Holland turn, one of the fastest and most difficult turns before going into the main straight, and the last point of attack before the finish.
From this Grandstand you have a perfect view of the impressive braking going into Elf turn. This is the point where most overtaking takes place.
East Area - J Grandstand On the main straight of the Circuit, for a great view of the pit lane exit and the acceleration of the F1 cars. You will also be able to see the spectacular braking before the first turn.
East Area - K Grandstand On the main straight of the Circuit, for a great view of the pit lane exit and the acceleration of the F1 cars. Located between turn 7 and Campsa turn it offers a wonderful view of the acceleration on this section, one of the most technical and highly valued by the drivers.
Between and , the king of Aragon and the queen of Castile married and ruled their kingdoms together, retaining all of their distinct institutions and legislation.
During the Franco-Spanish War — , Catalonia revolted — against a large and burdensome presence of the royal army in its territory, being briefly proclaimed a republic under French protection.
Within a brief period France took full control of Catalonia, until it was largely reconquered by the Spanish army. Under the terms of the Treaty of the Pyrenees in , the Spanish Crown ceded the northern parts of Catalonia, mostly the County of Roussillon , to France.
During the War of the Spanish Succession — , the Crown of Aragon sided against the Bourbon Philip V of Spain ; following Catalan defeat on 11 September , Philip V, inspired by the model of France imposed a unifying administration across Spain, enacting the Nueva Planta decrees , suppressing the main Catalan institutions and rights like in the other realms of the Crown of Aragon.
This led to the eclipse of Catalan as a language of government and literature, replaced by Spanish. In the 19th century, Catalonia was severely affected by the Napoleonic and Carlist Wars.
In the second half of the century, Catalonia experienced significant industrialisation. As wealth from the industrial expansion grew, Catalonia saw a cultural renaissance coupled with incipient nationalism while several workers movements appeared.
In , the four Catalan provinces formed a commonwealth , and with the return of democracy during the Second Spanish Republic — , the Generalitat of Catalonia was restored as an autonomous government.
After the Spanish Civil War , the Francoist dictatorship enacted repressive measures, abolishing Catalan self-government and banning the official use of the Catalan language again.
Since the Spanish transition to democracy — , Catalonia has regained considerable autonomy in political, educational, environmental, and cultural affairs and is now one of the most economically dynamic communities of Spain.
In the s there has been growing support for Catalan independence. On 27 October , the Catalan Parliament declared independence from Spain following a disputed referendum.
The Spanish Senate voted in favour of enforcing direct rule by removing the entire Catalan government and calling a snap regional election for 21 December.
On 2 November of the same year, the Spanish Supreme Court imprisoned 7 former ministers of the Catalan government on charges of rebellion and misuse of public funds, while several others, including the President Carles Puigdemont, fled to other European countries.
The name Catalonia— Catalunya in Catalan, spelled Cathalonia , or Cathalaunia in Medieval Latin —began to be used for the homeland of the Catalans Cathalanenses in the late 11th century and was probably used before as a territorial reference to the group of counties that comprised part of the March of Gothia and March of Hispania under the control of the Count of Barcelona and his relatives.
The first known human settlements in what is now Catalonia were at the beginning of the Middle Paleolithic.
The oldest known trace of human occupation is a mandible found in Banyoles , described by some sources as pre- Neanderthal some , years old; other sources suggest it to be only about one third that old.
The Neolithic era began in Catalonia around BC, although the population was slower to develop fixed settlements than in other places, thanks to the abundance of woods, which allowed the continuation of a fundamentally hunter-gatherer culture.
An example of such settlements would be La Draga, an "early Neolithic village which dates from the end of the 6th millennium BC.
The Chalcolithic period developed in Catalonia between and BCE, with the beginning of the construction of copper objects. There are few remnants of this era, but there were some known settlements in the low Segre zone.
The Bronze Age coincided with the arrival of the Indo-Europeans through the Urnfield Culture , whose successive waves of migration began around BC, and they were responsible for the creation of the first proto-urban settlements.
In pre-Roman times, the area that is now called Catalonia in the north-east of Iberian Peninsula — like the rest of the Mediterranean side of the peninsula — was populated by the Iberians.
The Iberians of this area — the Ilergetes , Indigetes and Lacetani Cerretains — also maintained relations with the peoples of the Mediterranean.
The Carthaginians briefly ruled the territory in the course of the Second Punic War and traded with the surrounding Iberian population.
After the Carthaginian defeat by the Roman Republic , the north-east of Iberia became the first to come under Roman rule and became part of Hispania , the westernmost part of the Roman Empire.
Tarraco modern Tarragona was one of the most important Roman cities in Hispania and the capital of the province of Tarraconensis.
As for the rest of Hispania, Latin law was granted to all cities under the reign of Vespasian AD , while Roman citizenship was granted to all free men of the empire by the Edict of Caracalla in AD Tarraco, the capital, was already a colony of Roman law since 45 BC.
It was a rich agricultural province olive oil, vine, wheat , and the first centuries of the Empire saw the construction of roads the most important being the Via Augusta , parallel to Mediterranean coastline and infrastructure like aqueducts.
Conversion to Christianity , attested in the 3rd century, was completed in urban areas in the 4th century. Although Hispania remained under Roman rule and did not fall under the rule of Vandals , Swabians and Alans in the 5th century, the main cities suffered frequent sacking and some deurbanization.
After the fall of the Western Roman Empire , the area was conquered by the Visigoths and was ruled as part of the Visigothic Kingdom for almost two and a half centuries.
In , it came under Muslim control and became part of Al-Andalus , a province of the Umayyad Caliphate. From the conquest of Roussillon in , to the conquest of Barcelona in , the Frankish empire took control of the area between Septimania and the Llobregat river from the Muslims and created heavily militarised, self-governing counties.
These counties formed part of the Gothic and Hispanic marches, a buffer zone in the south of the Frankish empire in the former province of Septimania and in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula, to act as a defensive barrier for the Frankish empire against further Muslim invasions from Al-Andalus.
These counties came under the rule of the counts of Barcelona , who were Frankish vassals nominated by the emperor of the Franks, to whom they were feudatories — The earliest known use of the name " Catalonia " for these counties dates to During the 9th century, the Count Wifred the Hairy made its title hereditary and founded the dynasty of the House of Barcelona , which ruled Catalonia until The king of France formally relinquished his nominal feudal lordship over all the Catalan counties, except the County of Foix , despite the opposition of the king of Aragon and count of Barcelona.
In the period of —, new territories, the Kingdom of Valencia , the Kingdom of Majorca , Sardinia , the Kingdom of Sicily , Corsica , and briefly the Duchies of Athens and Neopatras , were incorporated into the dynastic domains of the House of Aragon.
At the same time, the Principality of Catalonia developed a complex institutional and political system based in the concept of a pact between the estates of the realm and the king.
Laws had to be approved in the General Court of Catalonia , one of the first parliamentary bodies of Europe that banned the royal power to create legislation unilaterally since In order to collect general taxes, the Courts of established a permanent representative of deputies position, called the Deputation of the General and later usually known as Generalitat , which gained political power over the next centuries.
The domains of the Aragonese Crown were severely affected by the Black Death pandemic and by later outbreaks of the plague. Between and Catalonia lost 37 percent of its population.
Ferdinand II of Aragon , the grandson of Ferdinand I, and Queen Isabella I of Castile were married in , later taking the title the Catholic Monarchs ; subsequently, this event was seen by historiographers as the dawn of a unified Spain.
At this time, though united by marriage, the Crowns of Castile and Aragon maintained distinct territories, each keeping its own traditional institutions, parliaments, laws and currency.
Over the next few centuries, the Principality of Catalonia was generally on the losing side of a series of wars that led steadily to more centralization of power in Spain.
Despite this fact, between the 16th and 18th centuries, the participation of the political community in the local and the general Catalan government was increased, while the kings remained absent and its constitutional system continued to consolidate.
Roussillon was lost to France by the Peace of the Pyrenees The most significant conflict concerning the governing monarchy was the War of the Spanish Succession , which began when the childless Charles II of Spain , the last Spanish Habsburg, died without an heir in Philip felt that he had been betrayed by the Catalan Courts, as it had initially sworn its loyalty to him when he had presided over it in In retaliation for the betrayal, the first Bourbon king introduced the Nueva Planta decrees that incorporated the territories of the Crown of Aragon, including Catalonia, as provinces under the Crown of Castile in , terminating their separate institutions, laws and rights, within a united kingdom of Spain.
At the beginning of the nineteenth century Catalonia was severely affected by the Napoleonic Wars. In it was occupied by the French troops, the resistance against the occupation eventually developed into the Peninsular War.
The rejection to French dominion was institutionalized with the creation of "juntas" councils who, remaining loyal to the Bourbons, exercised the sovereignty and representation of the territory due to the disappearance of the old institutions.
Napoleon took direct control of Catalonia to establish order, creating the Government of Catalonia under the rule of Marshall Augereau , and making Catalan briefly an official language again.
Catalonia was divided, the coast and most industrialized areas support liberalism, while many inland areas were in the hands of Carlists. In the second third of the 19th century, it became an industrial center.
This process was boosted by, amongst other things, national protectionist laws although the policy of the Spanish government during those times changed many times between free trade and protectionism and the conditions of proto-industrialization of the prior two centuries of the Catalan urban areas and its countryside.
To this day it remains one of the most industrialised areas of Spain. In it was inaugurated in Barcelona the factory Bonaplata, the first of the country which worked with steam engine.
During those years, Barcelona was the focus of important revolutionary uprisings, called "bullangues", causing a difficult relation between many sectors of Catalan society and the central government and, in Catalonia, a republican current began to develop; also, inevitably, many Catalans favored a more federal Spain.
After the fall of the First Spanish Republic and the restoration of the Bourbon dynasty , Catalan nationalism grew in importance.
The Anarchists had been active throughout the early 20th century, founding the CNT trade union and achieving one of the first eight-hour workday in Europe in In the first third of the 20th century, Catalonia gained and lost varying degrees of autonomy several times.
In , the four Catalan provinces were authorized to create a Commonwealth Mancomunitat , without any legislative power or specific autonomy which carried out an ambitious program of modernization, but that was disbanded in by the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera During the last steps of the Dictatorship, Barcelona celebrated the International Exposition ,  while Spain started to suffer an economical crisis.
This period was marked by political unrest, the effects of the economic crisis and their social repercussions.
The Statute was suspended in , due to the Events of 6 October in Barcelona, as a response [ clarification needed ] to the accession of right-wing Spanish nationalist party CEDA to the government of the Republic, considered close to fascism.
The defeat of the military rebellion against the Republican government in Barcelona placed Catalonia firmly in the Republican side of the Spanish Civil War.
During the war, there were two rival powers in Catalonia: The situation resolved itself progressively in favor of the Generalitat, but at the same time the Generalitat was partially losing its autonomous power within Republican Spain.
The defeat of the Spanish Republic in the Spanish Civil War brought to power the dictatorship of Francisco Franco , whose first ten year rule was particularly violent, autocratic, and repressive both in a political, cultural, social, and economical sense.
During later stages of Francoist Spain , certain folkloric and religious celebrations in Catalan resumed and were tolerated. Use of Catalan in the mass media had been forbidden, but was permitted from the early s  in the theatre.
Despite the ban during the first years and the difficulties of the next period, publishing in Catalan continued throughout his rule.
The years after the war were extremely hard. Catalonia, like many other parts of Spain, had been devastated by the war. By the late s the region had recovered its pre-war economic levels and in the s was the second fastest growing economy in the world in what became known as the Spanish miracle.
First election to the Parliament of Catalonia under this Statute gave the Catalan presidency to Jordi Pujol , a position he would hold until The Catalan capital and largest city, Barcelona, is a major international cultural centre and a major tourist destination.
In , Barcelona hosted the Summer Olympic Games. The new government redacted a new version of the Statute of Autonomy , which consolidated and extended certain aspects of self-government.
In , the Court declared non valid some of the articles that established an autonomous Catalan system of Justice, better aspects of the financing, a new territorial division, the status of Catalan language or the symbolical declaration of Catalonia as a nation.
A controversial independence referendum was held in Catalonia on 1 October , using a disputed voting process. The climate of Catalonia is diverse.
Winter is cool or slightly cold depending on the location. It snows frequently in the Pyrenees, and it occasionally snows at lower altitudes, even by the coastline.
Spring and autumn are typically the rainiest seasons, except for the Pyrenean valleys, where summer is typically stormy.
The inland part of Catalonia is hotter and drier in summer. Fog is not uncommon in valleys and plains; it can be especially persistent, with freezing drizzle episodes and subzero temperatures during winter, mainly along the Ebro and Segre valleys and in Plain of Vic.
Catalonia has a marked geographical diversity, considering the relatively small size of its territory. The geography is conditioned by the Mediterranean coast, with kilometres miles of coastline, and large relief units of the Pyrenees to the north.
The Catalan territory is divided into three main geomorphological units: The Catalan Pyrenees represent almost half in length of the Pyrenees, as it extends more than kilometres miles.
Traditionally differentiated the Axial Pyrenees the main part and the Pre-Pyrenees southern from the Axial which are mountainous formations parallel to the main mountain ranges but with lower altitudes, less steep and a different geological formation.
The Depression lands are located between and metres and 1, feet. The plains and the water that descend from the Pyrenees have made it fertile territory for agriculture and there are built numerous irrigation canals.
The Catalan Mediterranean system is based on two more or less parallel ranges to the coast, in a Northwest direction towards the Southwest.
These two mountain ranges are the Coastal and the Pre-Coastal. The Coastal Range is minor extent and it has lower altitudes, while the Pre-Coastal is larger in both length and height.
The most relevant mountains of this area are Montserrat , Montseny and Ports. Within the ranges are a series of plains, the entities over which form the Coastal and the Pre-Coastal Depressions.
Catalonia is a showcase of European landscapes on a small scale. Just over 30, square kilometres 12, square miles hosting a variety of substrates, soils, climates, directions, altitudes and distances to the sea.
The area is of great ecological diversity and a remarkable wealth of landscapes, habitats and species. The fauna of Catalonia comprises a minority of animals endemic to the region and a majority of non-native animals.
Much of Catalonia enjoys a Mediterranean climate except mountain areas , which makes many of the animals that live there adapted to Mediterranean ecosystems.
Of mammals, there are plentiful wild boar , red foxes, as well as roe deer and in the Pyrenees, the Pyrenean chamois.
Other large species such as the bear have been recently reintroduced. Waters of Balearic Sea are rich in biodiversity, and even the megafaunas of ocean; various type of whales such as fin , sperm , and pilot and dolphins live within the area.
Most of Catalonia belongs to the Mediterranean Basin. The Catalan hydrographic network consists of two important basins, the one of the Ebro and the one that comprises the internal basins of Catalonia respectively covering Furthermore, there is the Garona river basin that flows to the Atlantic Ocean , but it only covers 1.
The hydrographic network can be divided in two sectors, an occidental slope or Ebro river slope and one oriental slope constituted by minor rivers that flow to the Mediterranean along the Catalan coast.
The first slope provides an average of 18, cubic hectometres 4. The difference is due to the big contribution of the Ebro river, from which the Segre is an important tributary.
Moreover, in Catalonia there is a relative wealth of groundwaters, although there is inequality between comarques , given the complex geological structure of the territory.
The biggest are the lake of Banyoles and the recently recovered lake of Ivars. The principal rivers in Catalonia are the Ter , Llobregat , and the Ebro , all of which run into the Mediterranean.
Intensive agriculture, livestock farming and industrial activities have been accompanied by a massive tourist influx more than 20 million annual visitors , a rate of urbanization and even of major metropolisation which has led to a strong urban sprawl: Human activities have also put some animal species at risk, or even led to their disappearance from the territory, like the gray wolf and probably the brown bear of the Pyrenees.
Faced with this problems, Catalan authorities initiated several measures whose purpose is to protect natural ecosystems.
This autonomous community has gradually achieved more autonomy since the approval of the Spanish Constitution of The Generalitat holds exclusive jurisdiction in culture, environment, communications, transportation, commerce, public safety and local government, and shares jurisdiction with the Spanish government in education, health and justice.
The support for Catalan nationalism ranges from a demand for further autonomy and the federalisation of Spain to the desire for independence from the rest of Spain, expressed by Catalan independentists.
Since when the question started to be regularly surveyed by the governmental Center for Public Opinion Studies CEO , support for Catalan independence has been on the rise.
In hundreds of non-binding local referendums on independence, organised across Catalonia from 13 September , a large majority voted for independence, although critics argued that the polls were mostly held in pro-independence areas.
On 11 September , a pro-independence march pulled in a crowd of between , according to the Spanish Government , 1.
Parties that consider themselves either Catalan nationalist or independentist have been present in all Catalan governments since The largest Catalan nationalist party, Convergence and Union , ruled Catalonia from to , and returned to power in the election.
In the 25 November Catalan parliamentary election , sovereigntist parties supporting a secession referendum gathered Parties supporting independence from the rest of Spain obtained Artur Mas , then the president of Catalonia, organised early elections that took place on 27 September The Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia is the fundamental organic law, second only to the Spanish Constitution from which the Statute originates.
In the Spanish Constitution of Catalonia, along with the Basque Country and Galicia , was defined as a " nationality ". The same constitution gave Catalonia the automatic right to autonomy, which resulted in the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia of Both the Statute of Autonomy and the current one, approved in , state that "Catalonia, as a nationality, exercises its self-government constituted as an Autonomous Community in accordance with the Constitution and with the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia, which is its basic institutional law, always under the law in Spain".
The judgment granted clear passage to articles of the that make up the fundamental text. The Parliament of Catalonia in Catalan: Parlament de Catalunya is the legislative body of the Generalitat and represents the citizens of Catalonia.
It is elected every four years by universal suffrage , and it has powers to legislate in different matters such as education, health, culture, internal institutional and territorial organization, election and control of the president of the Generalitat and the Government, budget and other affairs, according with the Statute of Autonomy.
The last Catalan election was held on 21 December , and its current president is Roger Torrent , incumbent since January The president of the Generalitat of Catalonia in Catalan: The Executive Council in Catalan: Consell Executiu or Government Govern , is the body responsible of the government of the Generalitat, it holds executive and regulatory power.
Its seat is the Palau de la Generalitat , in Barcelona. Since they have been under the command of the Generalitat, and since they have expanded in number in order to replace the national Civil Guard and National Police Corps , which report directly to the Homeland Department of Spain.
The national bodies retain personnel within Catalonia to exercise functions of national scope such as overseeing ports, airports, coasts, international borders, custom offices, the identification of documents and arms control, immigration control, terrorism prevention, arms trafficking prevention, amongst others.
Most of the justice system is administered by national judicial institutions, the highest body and last judicial instance in the Catalan jurisdiction, integrating the Spanish judiciary, is the High Court of Justice of Catalonia.
The criminal justice system is uniform throughout Spain, while civil law is administered separately within Catalonia.
The civil laws that are subject to autonomous legislation have been codified in the Civil Code of Catalonia Codi civil de Catalunya since Navarre , the Basque Country and Catalonia are the Spanish communities with the highest degree of autonomy in terms of law enforcement.
Catalonia is organised territorially into provinces , further subdivided into comarques and municipalities. The Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia establishes the administrative organisation of three local authorities: Catalonia is divided administratively into four provinces, the governing body of which is the Provincial Deputation Catalan: The four provinces and their populations are: The current regional division has its roots in a decree of the Generalitat de Catalunya of , in effect until , when it was suppressed by Franco.
At present there are Every comarca is administered by a comarcal council consell comarcal. There are at present municipalities municipis in Catalonia.
Each municipality is run by a council ajuntament elected every four years by the residents in local elections. The council consists of a number of members regidors depending on population, who elect the mayor alcalde or batlle.
Its seat is the town hall ajuntament , casa de la ciutat or casa de la vila. The vegueria is a new type of division defined as a specific territorial area for the exercise of government and inter-local cooperation with legal personality.
The current Statute of Autonomy states vegueries are intended to supersede provinces in Catalonia, and take over many of functions of the comarques.
In , for example, Catalonia lost companies to other parts of Spain mainly Madrid , gaining new ones from the rest of the country. The distribution of sectors is as follows: In the High Pyrenees there are several ski resorts, near Lleida.
On 1 November , Catalonia started charging a tourist tax. Many savings banks are based in Catalonia, with 10 of the 46 Spanish savings banks having headquarters in the region.
The main economic cost for the Catalan families is the purchase of a home. According to data from the Society of Appraisal on 31 December Catalonia is, after Madrid, the second most expensive region in Spain for housing: The unemployment rate stood at Airports in Catalonia are owned and operated by Aena a Spanish Government entity except two airports in Lleida which are operated by Aeroports de Catalunya an entity belonging to the Government of Catalonia.
Since the Middle Ages, Catalonia has been well integrated into international maritime networks. The port of Barcelona owned and operated by Puertos del Estado , a Spanish Government entity is an industrial, commercial and tourist port of worldwide importance.
With 1,, TEUs in , it is the first container port in Catalonia, the third in Spain after Valencia and Algeciras in Andalusia, the 9th in the Mediterranean Sea, the 14th in Europe and the 68th in the world.
It is sixth largest cruise port in the world, the first in Europe and the Mediterranean with 2,, passengers in The development of these infrastructures, resulting from the topography and history of the Catalan territory, responds strongly to the administrative and political organization of this autonomous community.
They follow the coast from the French border to Valencia , Murcia and Andalusia. The main roads generally radiate from Barcelona. Public-own roads in Catalonia are either managed by the autonomous government of Catalonia e.
Given the topography most lines radiate from Barcelona. The city has both suburban and inter-city services.
There are two publicly owned railway companies operating in Catalonia: The official opening between Barcelona and Madrid took place 20 February The journey between Barcelona and Madrid now takes about two-and-a-half hours.
A connection to the French high-speed TGV network has been completed called the Perpignan—Barcelona high-speed rail line and the Spanish AVE service began commercial services on the line 9 January , later offering services to Marseille on their high speed network.
As of , the official population of Catalonia was 7,, In , the population of Catalonia was 1,, people and in it was 5,, In Catalonia that wave of internal migration arrived from several regions of Spain, especially from Andalusia , Murcia  and Extremadura.
Immigrants from other countries settled in Catalonia in the s and s; a large percentage came from Africa and Latin America , and smaller numbers from Asia and Eastern Europe , often settling in urban centers such as Barcelona and industrial areas.
Religion in Catalonia . Historically, all the Catalan population was Christian , specifically Catholic , but since the s there has been a trend of decline of Christianity and parallel growth of irreligion including stances of atheism and agnosticism and other religions.
According to the most recent study sponsored by the government of Catalonia , as of , At the same time, According to the linguistic census held by the Government of Catalonia in , Spanish is the most spoken language in Catalonia In everyday use, There is a significant difference between the Barcelona metropolitan area and, to a lesser extent, the Tarragona area , where Spanish is more spoken than Catalan, and the more rural Catalonia, where Catalan clearly prevails over Spanish.
This small area of 7, inhabitants was the only place where a dialect of Occitan has received full official status. Then, on 9 August , when the new Statute came into force, Occitan became official throughout Catalonia.
Occitan is the mother tongue of Although not considered an "official language" in the same way as Catalan, Spanish, and Aranese, Catalan Sign Language , with about 18, users in Catalonia,  is granted official recognition and support: Under Francoist Spain , Catalan was excluded from the public education system and all other official use, so that for example families were not allowed to officially register children with Catalan names.
Some books were published clandestinely or circumvented the restrictions by showing publishing dates prior to Rural—urban migration originating in other parts of Spain also reduced the social use of Catalan in urban areas and increased the use of Spanish.
Lately, a similar sociolinguistic phenomenon has occurred with foreign immigration. After the end of Francoist Spain, the newly established self-governing democratic institutions in Catalonia embarked on a long-term language policy to recover the use of Catalan  and has, since , enforced laws which attempt to protect and extend the use of Catalan.
Some groups consider these efforts a way to discourage the use of Spanish,     whereas some others, including the Catalan government  and the European Union  consider the policies respectful,  or even as an example which "should be disseminated throughout the Union".
Today, Catalan is the main language of the Catalan autonomous government and the other public institutions that fall under its jurisdiction.
Basic public education is given in Catalan, except for two hours per week of Spanish medium instruction. Businesses are required to display all information e.
There is no obligation to display this information in either Occitan or Spanish, although there is no restriction on doing so in these or other languages.
The use of fines was introduced in a linguistic law  that aims to increase the public use of Catalan and defend the rights of Catalan speakers.
The law ensures that both Catalan and Spanish — being official languages — can be used by the citizens without prejudice in all public and private activities,  but primary education can only be taken in Catalan language.
The Generalitat uses Catalan in its communications and notifications addressed to the general population, but citizens can also receive information from the Generalitat in Spanish if they so desire.
Due to the intense immigration which Spain in general and Catalonia in particular experienced in the first decade of the 21st century, many foreign languages are spoken in various cultural communities in Catalonia, of which Rif - Berber ,  Moroccan Arabic , Romanian  and Urdu are the most common ones.
Recently, some of these policies have been criticised for trying to promote Catalan by imposing fines on businesses. On the other hand, such organisations as Plataforma per la Llengua reported different violations of the linguistic rights of the Catalan speakers in Catalonia and the other Catalan-speaking territories in Spain, most of them caused by the institutions of the Spanish government in these territories.
In Catalonia, the Catalan language policy has been challenged by some Catalan intellectuals like Albert Boadella.